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Lithium

Lithium Ion

Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells have a negative electrode (anode) made from lithium compounds. Lithium is a highly reactive material and is much lighter than the hydrogen-absorbing metal alloy of the NiMH negative electrode. This leads to higher gravimetric energy densities for the Li-Ion cell.Cells can stay in storage for 12 months without requiring maintenance. The expected cycle life of a Li-Ion in an application is about 500+ full charge and discharge cycles.

  • Standard Cell Sizes Available
  • Standard and Custom PCM
  • Custom Cell Sizes Available
  • Cylindrical Form Factor
Typical Performance Characteristics of Lithium Ion Batteries
Operational Battery Voltage 4.2 to 2.7 Volts
Specific Energy 100 to 158 Wh/Kg
Energy Density 185 to 220 Wh/L
Power Density 245 to 430 W/Kg
Continuous Rate Capability Typical: 1C High Rate: 5C
Pulse Rate Capability Up to 15C
Cycle Life Typically 500
Calendar Life 3 – 5 years
Self Discharge Rate 0.3% / month
Operable Temperature Range -20C to 60C
Memory Effect None

 

Note: Characteristics can change according to improvements in chemistry or special niche requirements.

Typical Application

  • Medical tools
  • Industrial applications
  • Consumer electronics
  • Portable devices
  • Military applications
  • Power banks

Lithium Polymer

Lithium Polymer Ion batteries provide the performance of the Li-ion in a thin or moldable package. They do not use a volatile liquid electrolyte and can sustain significant abuse without explosion or fire.

The lithium polymer uses a polymer gel electrolyte to replace the traditional liquid electrolyte. Lithium-polymer finds its market niche in applications that require thin geometries, such as batteries for cell phones, tablets, wearable technologies and other such applications. Expected cycle life is about 500+ full charge and discharge cycles.

  • Over 700 Standard Cells Sizes Available
  • Standard Series Continually Expanding
  • Standard and Custom PCM
  • Customized Cell Sizes Available
  • Thin Prismatic Form Factor
Typical Performance Characteristics of Lithium Ion Batteries
Operational Battery Voltage 4.2 to 2.7 Volts
Specific Energy 100 to 158 Wh/Kg
Energy Density 185 to 220 Wh/L
Power Density 245 to 430 W/Kg
Continuous Rate Capability Typical: 1C
High Rate 5C up to 15C
Pulse Rate Capability Up to 15C
Cycle Life at 100% DOD Typically 500
Calendar Life 3 – 5 years
Self Discharge Rate 0.3% / month
Operable Temperature Range -20C to 60C
Operable Charge Temperature Range 10C to 45C
Memory Effect None

 

Note: Characteristics can change according to improvements in chemistry or special niche requirements.

Advantages

  • Very thin profile
  • Curved and cylindrical form factors
  • Lightweight
  • Improved safety Expensive
  • Easily Customizable Sizes

Typical Application

  • Tablets
  • Cell Phones
  • Portable medical devices
  • Laptops
  • Compact consumer electronics
  • Wearable devices
  • Drones

Lithium Iron Phosphate

The lithium iron phosphate battery is a type of rechargeable battery based on the original lithium ion chemistry, created by the use of Iron (Fe) as a cathode material. LiFePO4 cells have a higher discharge current, do not explode under extreme conditions and weigh less but have lower voltage and energy density than normal Li-ion cells.

Iron (Fe) is an intrinsically safer cathode material than Cobalt (Co). The Fe-P-O bond is stronger than the Co-O bond so that when abused (short circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration. Only under extreme heating, generally over 8000C, does breakdown occur which prevents the thermal runaway that typical Li-Ion cells are prone to.

LiFePO4 is highly resilient during oxygen loss which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells. No PCM needed, but recommended to maintain cycle life and capacity.

  • Multiple Cell Sizes Available
Typical Performance Characteristics of Lithium Phosphate Batteries
Operational Battery Voltage 3.65 to 2.0 Volts
Specific Energy 100 to 120 Wh/Kg
Energy Density 135 to 150 Wh/L
Power Density 2000 to 4500 W/Kg
Continuous Rate Capability Typical: 30C
High Rate 50C
Pulse Rate Capability Up to 100C
Cycle Life at 100% DOD Typically 1200
Calendar Life 3 – 5 years
Self Discharge Rate 0.3% / month
Operable Temperature Range -20C to 60C
Operable Charge Temperature Range 0C to 55C
Memory Effect None

 

Note: Characteristics can change according to improvements in chemistry or special niche requirements.

Advantages

  • Extremely High Rate Capability
  • Safer Lithium Battery
  • Good storage characteristics
  • Good High Temp performance

Typical Application

  • Power Tools
  • Electric Vehicle applications
  • Autoclave devices
  • Industrial lighting
  • Backup systems
  • Medical devices
  • Industrial electronics
  • Consumer electronics